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  • Writer's pictureBarbara Huelat

Shelves of Memories: Understanding Dementia through the Bookcase Metaphor

Dementias are complex diseases to understand. I have found the “Bookcase Analogy” as a helpful metaphor for explaining dementia.


Imagine that your brain is like a bookcase, with many shelves representing different aspects of your memory and cognitive function. Each shelf contains books that represent the information and skills you have acquired throughout your life. For example, one shelf might hold your language skills, while another might hold your motor skills. Now, imagine the dementia brain where some of the books on the shelves start disappearing or becoming disorganized. At first, the changes may be subtle, but over time, more and more books go missing, and the remaining ones become harder to access. As the shelves in the dementia brain's bookcase become emptier, an individual's ability to perform everyday tasks, such as cooking, cleaning, and managing finances, becomes more challenging. They may also struggle to recognize familiar faces and places and have difficulty communicating effectively. Different types of dementia affect different areas of the bookcase, with some types affecting language or problem-solving skills more than others. Imagine that the bookcase in question is not just any bookcase but one that you've had for years, and it's full of your most treasured memories, your life story. As you age, the shelves on this bookcase start to sag a bit under the weight of all those books, and the books themselves become a bit worn and faded. At first, you might notice that you're having trouble remembering some of the newer books that you added to the shelves. Maybe you can't recall the details of a book you read last week or the name of someone you met recently. These forgotten books are like the early signs of dementia. As the shelves sag further, the older books that have been there for decades become harder to reach. You might have to stand on tiptoes to see the titles or even climb on a chair to get to the higher shelves. These older books are like the memories from your earlier years, and they become harder to access as dementia progresses. Eventually, the shelves on the bookcase start to collapse, and books start falling off. The books that fall off the bookcase are like the memories that are lost to dementia. You might forget the names of your loved ones or the places you've been or the things you've done. But even as the bookcase crumbles, some of the books remain, scattered on the floor. These books are like the cherished memories that stay with you despite the ravages of dementia. Maybe you still remember the first time you fell in love, or the birth of your children, or the moment you achieved something important. The bookcase analogy shows that dementia doesn't just erase your memories; it's more like a gradual decay that affects different memories in different ways. And even as you lose some memories, others may endure, providing comfort and joy in your later years.


Dr. Richard Taylor, a psychologist and author who was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease at the age of 58. He used the analogy to help people understand the experience of living with dementia.


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